WHAT IS AN EYE EXAM
A complete eye exam depends on many factors, such as age, date of last revision, family history or the presence of other diseases. So the visit by the ophthalmologist is a basic examination, which will be similar in most cases, and a complementary exploration which may vary according to each situation. Some of the tests are not performed by the ophthalmologist, but a technician or a nurse specialist in ophthalmology, could report their findings to the doctor. The most important sections of an ophthalmologic screening are as follow:
During the initial examination must explain your medical and family history. This may include questions about your general health, allergies, medications and previous surgeries or eye diseases. It is essential that the patient work with your doctor, because if you omit any information that might be important, can cause diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Spanish law considers that the patient is required to provide all information requested by his doctor for a correct approach to the disease.
Visual acuity is the amount of vision that we have to focus and consciously perceive the details of objects that look. Is determined by the display of figures or letters of different sizes. Central vision is determined by the ability to read the smallest line at a certain distance, usually 5 meters for distance vision and 30 cm for near vision. The visual acuity test can be done with or without glasses.
Visual acuity may not be the same in both eyes. A disturbance in one eye may go unnoticed for many years, since the eye with normal vision binocular acuity getting correct. How are you circumstances are apparent in a routine optician or ophthalmologist.
Patients who wear glasses should conduct regular checks to adjust the graduation. With the passage of time is often the power of refractive errors: myopia, hyperopia, etc., Change the diopter power. It is recommended that temperature graduation every 1 or 2 years and may vary in each case and as directed by the ophthalmologist.
Refractive errors call to all those situations that cause an imbalance in the optical structure of the eye. The result is the perception of objects blurred. Refractive errors include:
- inability to see distant objects clearly (myopia)
- inability to clearly see close objects (farsightedness)
- twisted or distorted vision (astigmatism)
- difficulty changing focus from far to near (presbyopia)
In these cases, use a variety of diagnostic techniques to identify and quantify the refractive errors, is what is called "refraction". Sometimes, especially in children, the ophthalmologist uses drops to block variability approach to eliminate the error factors that entails, and to obtain a correct ranking without depending on the child's responses. After refraction, if necessary, the doctor or the optometrist give a prescription which indicates the correction that should have the spectacles.
Your ophthalmologist determines the health of your eyelids, lacrimal glands and lacrimal drainage system. These structures have a core function for the normal function of the eyes. The scan is determining the anatomy and palpebral motility and the amount of secreted eye tear, how lubricates the surface of the eyeball and the evacuation of the tear through the lacrimal hold, confirming that there is no resistance.
Various systemic diseases such as rheumatism, hyperthyroidism, etc., Can cause disruption of the eyelids and tear fluid.
The eyes can move quickly and more accurately than any other part of your body. The observation of the movement of his eyes may reveal abnormalities of position or lack of parallelism, revealing coordination or neurological problems. Normal movement of the eye depends on the synchronized activity of 12 muscles around the eyes, is the extrinsic muscles.
The intrinsic muscles control the diameter of the eye pupil. These muscles are evaluated by observing the pupillary light response, contraction or dilation or mydriasis and miosis. An abnormal response of the pupil may indicate a serious neurological disorder.
TONOMETRY (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE)
One of the most important aspects of the eye is intraocular pressure (IOP). The test we use to determine this is called tonometry, and used a specific instrument, the tonometer. The contact tonometer is slightly closer to the surface of the cornea to measure the pressure of the eye by reading the force applied to flatten an area of the cornea. Because the cornea is extremely sensitive, your ophthalmologist will use numbing drops you do not mind.
Currently available methods that can determine eye pressure without eye contact, eliminating the drawbacks that this entails. It is performed by projecting a jet of air, is what we know as pneumo-tonometry. Eye pressure ranges between 14 and 20 mm Hg. With an average value of 16 mm Hg. Above or below the normal range, serious problems can occur, such as glaucoma, causing loss of vision which can lead to irreversible blindness.
SLIT LAMP EXPLORATION
This exploration is to project a narrow beam of light on the eye. The light penetrates the interior of the balloon, "cutting" transparent tissue, the retina. The ophthalmologist, placed in front and with the help of a microscope, shows the structures of the eye: the cornea, iris, lens and vitreous. With the slit lamp can be detected before a cataract begins to affect vision.
The ophthalmoscope is an instrument that illuminates the interior of the eye, allowing your ophthalmologist examines the retina, inside of the eye, through the pupil. Instilled frequently drops to dilate the pupil can help the exploration, although modern sophisticated instruments available that allow this test without drops.
The eye ophthalmoscopy evaluation and interpretation by an ophthalmologist is an important part of the eye examination. There are many diseases that manifest initially by alterations can be demonstrated by this test, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney impairment, tumor metastasis, leukemia, etc., For this reason, many internists request this exploration as it provides information very valuable, both for diagnosis and for controlling the evolution of the disease.
In some circumstances your ophthalmologist may need a study of the visual field (peripheral vision.) When we approach an object, and observe its details, we also perceive the objects that make up the scene around him, is peripheral vision. Under certain conditions, one of the basic signs, is the deterioration of the peripheral field, its determination is therefore important to establish an accurate diagnosis. Glaucoma and certain neurological processes, especially brain tumors are pathologies which may alter the visual field.
INTERPRETATION OF THE OPHTHALMOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
The data obtained in the sections that we have just seen, should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. An ophthalmologist is a physician who after finishing his degree and pass the entrance exams, has specialized for a minimum of four years, in ophthalmology (everything that is related to vision and ocular apparatus, both the physiological and optical and pathological), so it is the only one able to decide the outcome of the exploration.
Only the ophthalmologist can report what is happening in their eyes, and to establish the most appropriate treatment regimen to solve your problem. It should establish good communication between doctor and patient so that the patient has all the information needed to make a decision on the conduct totally free to go.
The doctor is required to transmit, in a clear and intelligible, everything that the patient ask about their illness, and respect the dignity of the patient as a person, as well as their freedom to make decisions. When you follow these principles and establishing a relationship of trust, which is reflected in the signing of informed consent, you can set the proposed treatment.