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Specific learning problems (EAP) is a general term used in education. It refers to the difficulty in understanding and using the spoken and written language. Individuals with this difficulty may have problems with reading, writing, speech, concentration and math alterations.

Dyslexia, a specific type of learning problem, characterized by reading difficulties despite having an IQ suitable. Often dyslexia is inherited and affects 5 to 10 times more boys than girls.

When we encounter reading problems often raised the possibility of an incorrect but eyes not usually the cause of dyslexia, but it is the brain's inability to correctly interpret the images received by the eyes.

It is difficult to diagnose learning problems in preschoolers. In school situations, these difficulties can be detected in the presence of the following indicators:

1. Failure to achieve reading skills expected for their age and grade level (average) or problems in other academic areas despite having adequate intelligence quotient (IQ) and education.

2. Speech or language problems that persist, but change over time. For example, a child may have a "delayed speech" and then have problems pronouncing words and use them correctly or, to express their ideas.

3. Poor handwriting and writing slowed.

4. Memory problems and a decreased attention span.

5. Low self-esteem, frustration with school achievement.

6. Family history of learning disabilities and language.


There is little scientific evidence to corroborate these learning problems arise from poor vision, a focus of abnormal, jerky movements of the eyes, the eyes are misaligned or crossed and the defect in the eye-hand coordination.

Although the exact causes of these learning problems, current research as possible origin point mild brain involvement or a delay in the development of certain brain areas.

The functions of the eye are similar to those of a photographic camera. After "image capture" in the eye, it is sent to the brain via the optic nerve. The eyes do not understand what they are seeing, the same way that a camera can not understand the image captured. Until the image is not processed, it does not acquire meaning. Similarly, until the brain interprets the images that capture the eye, the image is meaningless.

Children can understand what they are reading through the acting ability of the brain. The interpretation of perception is a little different from the vision or vision. The brain associated with visual images prior knowledge and experience (as in the meaning of words and phrases). The specific learning problems are a defect in this process. Investments of letters or other alterations that are not specifically the responsibility of the eye.

The form of acquired dyslexia or other learning problems may arise as a result of brain damage due to infection (encephalitis, meningitis, etc..), Injuries (TBI, contact and / or toxic substance abuse, etc..), Premature birth , chemotherapy treatments or shock.

Learning disabilities may also be a result of mental retardation, visual or hearing disorders, emotional disorders, or environmental conditions (dysfunctional family situations, inadequate education, poor school attendance or economic problems). These problems generally are not considered specific learning disorders.


Children with learning disabilities do not have a higher incidence of eye problems as the rest of the population. However, ophthalmologists often visit children whose parents feel that the poor school performance may be due to impaired vision.

A thorough medical examination of the eyes can determine the presence of visual defect that can affect reading, in these cases will be necessary to correct the optical defect. However there are no data that affirm that the visual training, the exercise of the eye muscles and perceptual exercises or eye-hand coordination relevantly affect children with specific learning disabilities.

Consider for a moment to read complicated legal contracts, recognized most of the words, but when you are right in the middle of the first sentence realizes he does not know what he is reading. Back to the beginning and read the first paragraph again. Continued without understanding and therefore one or two sentences back and tries again. After much effort, just reading the contract without actually understanding it.

Children with learning disabilities have similar experiences to this continuously. It is not difficult to understand why just frustrated with loss of interest in school work and, together, try quickly to avoid difficult exercises. The reading and learning problems can also affect the development of their own image and cause emotional disturbances (introversion, anxiety, depression or aggression). Parents should be aware that the "poor readers" may develop these problems in personality and behavior. It is important to remember that the presence of learning problems has nothing to do with intelligence.

If parents or others suspected learning problems in a child, they should contact their teacher or, if necessary, with special education professionals. The law requires public schools to assess any child suspected to present a learning disorder.

The assessment and diagnosis are held by teachers and related educational exams and psychological tests. Could also perform appropriate diagnostic studies to exclude doctors from various pathologies. Other specialists may also be involved in the valuations of these children with learning disabilities are speech therapists, neuro-psychologists, etc.. Parents and teachers are particularly important in this process and need to be involved when decisions must be made as to the educational needs of children.

Treatment or help children with learning delays are taught better by teachers trained reading specialists, tutors, class or specialized schools. It is very important to the understanding, emotional support and opportunities that the child can experience success with those activities related to reading. The sport or artistic activities can benefit the child and that helps get rid of possible tensions and frustrations

Learning disabilities are complex disorders. There are no quick fixes. Simple solutions (such as diet), megavitamin, sugar restrictions, eye exercises, vision training glasses or do not provide a cure for these disorders. Statements of this kind give parents a false sense of security and may delay appropriate educational assistance. Many of these treatments are very expensive. The resources could be more appropriate if they were applied in educational programs for retarded children.

A child with learning disabilities need to practice reading skills with special assistance, the same way that an athlete needs to practice under the supervision of a qualified coach. There is no reason to assume that children with learning disorders requiring specific help can not have success later in life. Albert Einstein, among others, had problems in childhood learning and continued leading very productive lives.

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  Learning problems. dyslexia and attentional disabilitis